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Subject:† Objectives

Chapter 15 Objectives†††

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Kidneys (pp. 456-468)

Describe the location of the kidneys in the body.

Identify the following regions of a kidney (longitudinal section): hilus, cortex, medulla, medullary pyramids, calyces, pelvis, and renal columns.

Recognize that the nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney and describe its anatomy.

Describe the process of urine formation, identifying the areas of the nephron that are responsible for filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.

Describe the function of the kidneys in excretion of nitrogen-containing wastes.

Explain the role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the regulation of water balance by the kidney.

Explain the role of aldosterone in sodium and potassium balance of the blood.

Define polyuria, anuria, oliguria, and diuresis.

Describe the composition of normal urine.

List abnormal urinary components.

Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra (pp. 468-471)

Describe the general structure and function of the ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Compare the course and length of the male urethra to that of the female.

Define micturition.

Describe the difference in control of the external and internal urethral sphincters.

Name three common urinary tract problems.

Developmental Aspects of the Urinary System (pp. 471 and 473)

Describe three common congenital problems of the urinary system.

Describe the effect of aging on urinary system functioning. †††††

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Subject:† Outline Framework

Chapter 15 - The Urinary System

KIDNEYS (pp. 456-468)

Location and Structure (pp. 456-458)

Renal Cortex

Renal Medulla

Renal Pelvis

Blood Supply

Nephrons and Urine Formation (pp. 458-462)

Nephrons

Glomerulus

Renal Tubule

Glomerular Capsule

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

Loop of Henle

Distal Convoluted Tubule

Urine Formation

Filtration

Reabsorption

Secretion

Control of Blood Composition by the Kidneys (pp. 462-467)

Excretion of Nitrogen-Containing Wastes

Maintaining Water and Electrolyte Balance of Blood

Maintaining Acid-Base Balance of Blood

Blood Buffers

Respiratory System Controls

Renal Mechanisms

Characteristics of Urine (pp. 467-468)

URETERS, URINARY BLADDER, AND URETHRA (pp. 468-471)

Ureters (pp. 468-470)

Urinary Bladder (p. 470)

Urethra (pp. 470-471)

Internal Sphincter

External Sphincter

Micturition (p. 471)

Incontinence

Urinary Retention

DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM (pp. 471-473)

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Subject:† Terms: Urinary System

Urinary System

pp. 456~468

renin

renal capsule

adipose capsule

renal cortex

renal medulla

medullary pyramids

apex

renal columns

renal pelvis

calyces

renal artery

segmental arteries

lobar arteries

interlobar arteries

arcuate arteries

interlobular arteries

interlobular veins

arcuate veins

interlobar veins

renal vein

nephron

glomerulus

glomerular (Bowmanís) capsule

proximal convoluted tubule

distal convoluted tubule

cortical nephrons

juxtamedullary nephrons

collecting ducts

afferrent arteriole

efferent arteriole

peritubular capillaries

filtration

reabsorption

secretion

urine

nitrogenous wastes

urea

uric acid

creatinine

electrolyge

intracellular fluid

extracellular fluid (ECF)

water balance

electrolyte balance

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

diuresis

aldosterone

renin~antiotensin mechanism

justaglomerular appareatus

renin

polyuria

alkalaosis

acidosis

physiological acidosis

acid~base balance

buffer

bicarbonate buffer system

urochrome

soecufuc gravity

glycosuria

proteinuria (albuminuria)

pyuria

hemoglobinuria

bilirubinuria

Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra

ureter

renal calculi

urinary bladder

trigone

urethra

internal urethral sphincter

external urethral sphincter

micturition (voiding)

incontinence

urinary retention

polycystic kidney

hypospadias

pyelonephritis

glomerulonephritis

urgency

frequency

nocturia

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Subject:† Vocabulary Games and Drills

Quia! Site: flash cards, games,† drills, and simulations to help you learn vocabulary terms, prefixes, suffixes, etc.

http://www.quia.com/med.html

There are 35 different games to help you practice terms

anatomic directions and body positions

blood and immunity

body cavities and body regions

body structure

cardiovascular and lymphatic systems

cells, tissues and organs

directional terms

disease

drugs

integmentary system

musculoskeletal system

respiration

suffixes and plural endings

urology

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Subject:† WebLinks

Anatomy and Physiology for High School

http://www.msms.doe.k12.ms.us/biology/anatomy/apmain.html

An Anatomy and Physiology site aimed at high school students.† Click on the appropriate organ system for hyperlinked text and animations.† This site is very easy to understand and use.

Anatomy and Physiology Home Page

An online class/tutorial on anatomy and physiology from Springfield Technical Community College

http://lls.stcc.mass.edu/tamarkin/APhome.htm

Scroll Down and click on the appropriate unit

Good text explantions and diagrams

General Biology II at the University of Cinncinnatti

The BUGLADY Site

http://buglady.clc.uc.edu/biology/bio105/carter.htm

Go to ClassNotes and then to the appropriate unit.

A simple and clear introduction to tissues and organ systems

Good diagrams!

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