Chapter 46 & 47 Objectives
- to describe population characteristics including size, density,
- to describe proximate and ultimate factors associated with
- to describe the relation of limiting factors and carry capacity
- to describe niche, habitat, and community factors associated
with species survival
- to describe how interactions among species influence community
- to describe how competition and resource partitioning affect
community structure and species survival
- to describe the effects of parasitism on species survival
- to describe the potential effects of seasonaly recurring
events (such as fires or floods) and chance events in species
survival and endangerment
- to produce a phamphlet describing an endangered species
- to develop a plan for a nature preserve
Chapter 46 & 48 Outline Framework
- You do not need to download nor write chapter outlines
for this unit.
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Chapter 46 & 48 Questions
- all self-quiz questions for both chapters 46 & 47
- Chapter 46 Review Questions: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
- Chapater 48 Review Questions:
1, 2, 3
- select ONE of the Critical Thinking
questions in each chapter to answer
Chapter 46 & 48 Terms:
- carrying capacity
- limiting factor
- population density
- population size
- competitive exclusion
- interspecific competition
- resource partitioning
- Cane Toads
Toads, the movie
- One of the
strangest nature documentaries of all time, this Australian
production of finds
a wealth of bizarre humor in that country's disastrous infestation
of cane toads. Mixing expert testimony with hilarious anecdotes
and interviews, these creatures are loved by some, hated by
others, and quickly overrunning the countryside.
- In 1935,
Australia imported 102 seemingly innocent cane toads (Bufo Marinus)
from Hawaii to save their sugar cane crop from destructive cane
grubs. The toads proved worthless against the grubs, but in
1945, a pesticide successfully rid the countryside of this threat.
Unfortunately, the population was now stuck with the toads which,
without their usual predators, began reproducing at an astounding
rate. With each female capable of laying 40,000 eggs in one
summer, a half-century later, the cane toads have virtually
overrun North Queensland. Doctors explain the reproductive habits
of the creature, which will attempt to mate with anything--from
human hands to lumps of mud. This is accompanied by visuals
which show how the billabongs are turning black with tadpoles,
while backyards and roads are littered with fully-grown toads.
- Cane toads
also have a dangerous side, thanks to extremely toxic poison
sacs which can kill small animals. Nevertheless, many ordinary
citizens describe their love for the creature, with little girls
keeping cane toads as pets and dressing them up like dollies.
Others do not share their fondness for these "wretched toads."
Some are due to personal reasons (the loss of a pet due to toad
toxin), and others for their destruction of the natural habitat--with
one interviewee likening them to the invasion of the German
army in WWII.
- In the end,
there's still no solution in sight, even as the cane toads keep
pieced together, with its eye always toward whimsy, the result
is so amusing that you often forget you're watching a documentary
about an ecological disaster in the making.
- Watch the movie
- Describe the life history of the cane toad
- Describe why the cane toad was imported to Australia and
why it DID not fulfill its mission
- List factors associated with the cane toads potential ecological
"disaster in the making"
- Relate to issues in the reading on "Experiments with Displaced
Plants", New York Times, 1993.
- More Resources
Endangered Species Pamphlets
- Read Disappearing Acts: Causes of
Species Extinctions (class handout) and then
- Answer the reading
- Read the case history and details about a particular species
of animal that is in danger of extinction
- Produce a pamphlet or brochure on the life history, current
and past distribution, chain of events leading to endangered
status or extinction, proximate and ultimate causes of endangered
status or extinction, and a positive feedback loop that describes
that species pathway to endangerment or extinction.
- Choices include the gray wolf, the passenger pigeon, Kirtland's
warbler, the ivory-billed woodpecker, the black-footed ferret,
the grizzly bear
Design a Nature Preserve (Partner Test)
- For this assignment each partner team will be provided with
background information on preservation strategies for endangered
species, guidelines on designing a nature preserve for an endangered
species, and specific requirements tof a particular endangered
- Each team will also be provied with information on map reading
and a glossary of terms referring to endangered species and
- Each team wiil be asked to develop plans for a nature preserve
for the species assigned to their team.
- The guidelines for designing a nature reserve are on pate
151 of the "Protecting the Wilderness" handout
- Specific information on a vertebrate endangered species assigned
to your team will be found in the "Biological Services Program"
- Read these thoroughly before you design the preserve.
- You must answer all questions in this section before you
design a reserve plan.
- Then, in developing your preserve plan, you must answer completely
questions 1~7 on page 151.
- You will NOT be making a presentation in class!
- The plan must be detailed and complete
- Be sure to answer ALL questions as completely as possible
- Remember there are 2 sets of questions
- You may use internet resources, but be sure to plan your
- You will have only 2 class periods to complete the assignment
- Endangered species in this assessmet include the
- Morro Bay Kangaroo Rat
- Red Wolf
- Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse
- Santa Cruz Long-toed Salamander
- Florida Everglade Kite
- Houston Toad
- Cape Sable Sparrow
- Kirtland's Warbler
- This activity
is modified from the Stanford Conservation
- Species data
is from the U.
S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service
information may be found at
Chapter 46 & 48 WebLinks
- Conservation Site
- a source
for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000
plants, animals, and ecological communities of the United
States and Canada.
provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species,
but includes common plants and animals too.
is a product of the Association
for Biodiversity Information (http://www.abi.org/) in collaboration
with the Natural Heritage Network.
- You can
easily search NatureServe to find:
and common names
- conservation status
- distribution maps
- life histories
- conservation needs
- National Wildlife Federation
- The National
Wildlife Federation is the nation's largest member-supported
conservation group, uniting individuals, organizations, businesses
and government to protect wildlife, wild places, and the environment.
- This site
has a search function and resources on conservation
- World Conservation Monitoring
- The Center
rovides information services on conservation and sustainable
use of the world's living resources
- The programs
concentrate on species, forests, protected areas, marine and
freshwaters, plus habitats affected by climate change such
as polar regions.
- The Center
also address the relationship between trade and the environment
and the wider aspects of biodiversity assessment.
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- Center for Marine Conservation
- The Center
for Marine Conservation, as the nation's leading non-profit
organization dedicated solely to protecting marine life in
all its abundance and diversity, is at the forefront of every
major issue affecting this great "blue planet" ... preventing
pollution ... protecting dolphins, whales, sea turtles and
all marine species ... preserving critical marine habitat
... and ensuring the healthy future of our nation's fisheries.
- We welcome
you to our web site.
- We encourage
you to become informed on new ocean conservation issues. Become
inspired by what you learn. And then make a difference.
function and links to more plant and animal conservation and