Thermochemistry and Reaction Rates

Chapter Objectives
At the end of this unit students will be able to
1.  explain how energy, heat, and work are related.
2.  classify processes as either exothermic or endothermic.
3.  describe how calorimeters are used to measure heat flow.
4.  construct thermochemical equations.
5.  solve for enthalpy changes in chemical reactions by using heats of reaction.
6.  classify enthalpy change that occurs when a substance melts, freezes, boils, condenses, or dissolves.
7.  state Hess's law of heat summation and describe how it is used in chemistry.
8.  identify 4 factors that influence the rate of a chemical reaction.
9.  identify 3 stresses that can change the equilibrium position of a chemica system.
10.  predict whether a precipitation will occur when 2 salt solutions are mixed.
11.  identify 2 characteritics of spontaneous reactions and 2 factors that determine the spontaneity of a reaction.
12.  describe the role of entropy in chemical reactions.
Key Terms
chemical potential energy
endothermic process
exothermic process
heat capacity
heat of combustion
heat of reaction
Hess's law of heat summation
law of conservation of energy
molar heat of fusion
molar heat of solidification
molar heat of solution
molar heat of vaporization
specific heat
standard heat of formation
thermochemical equation
activated complex
activation energy
chemical equilibrium
collision theroy
common ion
common ion effect
elementary reaction
equilibrium constant
equilibrium position
first-order reaction
free energy
Gibbs free energy change
law of disorder
Le Chatelier's principle
nonspontaneous reaction
rate law
reaction mechanism
reversob;e reactopm
solubility product constant
specific rate constant
spontaneous reaction
transition state